Clinical Trial Estimands

This page contain links to blog posts, papers, presentations and software on the topic of ‘estimands’ in clinical trials. The estimand refers to how the treatment effect in a clinical trial is defined and quantified in light of so called intercurrent events which may occur. These are events which affect the existence or interpretation of patient outcomes after they occur. For further details on the estimand framework, see the ICH E9 addendum on estimands, linked to below.

Our work in this area is funded by a UK Medical Research Council grant (MR/T023953/1)

ICH E9 addendum on estimands

ICH E9 (R1) addendum on estimands and sensitivity analysis in clinical trials to the guideline on statistical principles for clinical trials

Blog posts




  • gFormulaMI – an R package for implementing G-formula by leveraging multiple imputation methods and software

Other useful estimand resources